XP1Power USB Function and Specification

USB powered devices

The USB connector provides a single 5 volt wire from which connected USB devices may power themselves. A given segment of the bus is specified to deliver up to 500 mA. This is often enough to power several devices, although this budget must be shared among all devices downstream of an unpowered hub. A bus-powered device may use as much of that power as allowed by the port it is plugged into. Bus-powered hubs can continue to distribute the bus provided power to connected devices but the USB specification only allows for a single level of bus-powered devices from a bus-powered hub. This disallows connection of a bus-powered hub to another bus-powered hub. Many hubs include external power supplies which will power devices connected through them without taking power from the bus. Devices that need more than 500 mA or higher than 5 volts must provide their own power. When USB devices (including hubs) are first connected they are interrogated by the host controller, which enquires of each their maximum power requirements. However, seems that any load connected to USB port may be treated by operating system as device. The host operating system typically keeps track of the power requirements of the USB network and may warn the computer's operator when a given segment requires more power than is available and may shut down devices in order to keep power consumption within the available resource.

USB power usage:

  • Bus-powered hubs: Draw Max 100 mA at power up and 500 mA normally.
  • Self-powered hubs: Draw Max 100 mA, must supply 500 mA to each port.
  • Low power, bus-powered functions: Draw Max 100 mA.
  • High power, bus-powered functions: Self-powered hubs: Draw Max 100 mA, must supply 500 mA to each port.
  • Self-powered functions: Draw Max 100 mA.
  • Suspended device: Max 0.5 mA

Dedicated charger mode:

A simple USB charger should short the 2 data lines together. The device will then not attempt to transmit or receive data, but can draw up to 1.8A, if the supply can provide it.

USB voltage:

Supplied voltage by a host or a powered hub ports is between 4.75 V and 5.25 V. Maximum voltage drop for bus-powered hubs is 0.35 V from its host or hub to the hubs output port. All hubs and functions must be able to send configuration data at 4.4 V, but only low-power functions need to be working at this voltage. Normal operational voltage for functions is minimum 4.75 V.